In the Middle-Ages it were mainly monks who specialised themselves in the developement of inks. Above that ink recipes found in the archives of pharmacists, dating back to the 16th century. These pharmacists occupied themselves, beside medications, with questions of nature and physics. In 1735 the German pharmacist Franz Esser of Monchen Glattbach produced several inks, which recipes he carefully archived. Franz Esser's son, Josef, inheritated both the recipes and the love for inks. After the death of Franz Esser "The Ink Book" was inheritated generation after generation till this finally fell in the hands of Dr. Franz-Josef Jansen the owner of "Die Tintenmanufaktur - de Atramentis" In 1991, after extensive laboratory research, the first hand made de Atramentis inks where produced and in 1995. Today de Atramentis produces more than 200 inks!