In the 17th and 18th centuries, Fabriano's paper industry experienced a long period of decline, probably due to the shift in trade flows following the discovery of America.
It was during the Industrial Revolution, almost contemporary with the French Revolution, that a clear recovery took place, above all thanks to the entrepreneurial capacities of Pietro Miliani who founded, in 1782, the Cartiere Miliani factory and soon brought it to a rare degree of efficiency, quickly taking what is now called the head of the sector.
Likewise, his grandson Giuseppe Miliani succeeded in transforming a family-type business into a large industrial complex, but also and above all in again imposing Fabriano on international markets, which will earn the city the most rewards. prestigious, such as the gold medal (the only one for all Italian states) at the London Exhibition in 1851.
Giovambattista Miliani is the last great representative of the family. It is thanks to this eminent politician, who was mayor of Fabriano, minister of agriculture during the Great War and senator of the Kingdom, that the Cartiere Miliani factory gradually included the other companies in the region and rose to a first-rate industrial level; the acquisition of a truly international reputation gave rise to large orders from credit institutions and central banks, both Italian and foreign, above all motivated by the incomparable quality of securities.